Oxidizing potential. P680 + is the strongest biological oxidizing agent known, with a...

The primary oxidizing agents in water are hypochlorous acid and

Oxidation-Reduction Potentials One way to quantify whether a substance is a strong oxidizing agent or a strong reducing agent is to use the oxidation-reduction potential or redox potential. Strong reducing agents can be said to have a high electron-transfer potential. Strong oxidizing agents have low electron-transfer potential.overall: Zn ( s) + 2H + ( aq) → Zn2 + ( aq) + H2 ( g) We then use Equation 12.5.2 to calculate the cell potential. E°cell = E°cathode − E°anode = 0.76V. Although the reaction at the anode is an oxidation, by convention its tabulated E° value is reported as a reduction potential.Are you looking to take your career to the next level? Google’s Skillshop platform can help you unlock your professional potential and become a more successful and knowledgeable employee.The standard cell potential ( Eo cell E c e l l o) is the difference of the two electrodes, which forms the voltage of that cell. To find the difference of the two half cells, the following equation is used: Eo Cell = Eo Red,Cathode −Eo Red,Anode (1a) (1a) E C e l l o = E R e d, C a t h o d e o − E R e d, A n o d e o. with.The meaning of OXIDATION POTENTIAL is the potential at which oxidation occurs at the anode in an electrochemical cell.Density 13.546 g/cm 3. Characteristics: Mercury is one of the few liquid elements. It dissolves in oxidizing acids, producing either Hg2 +. Hg 2 +. or Hg2 + 2. Hg 2 + 2. , depending on which reagent is in excess. The metal is also soluble in aqua regia ( a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids) to form HgCl2 − 4. HgCl 2 − 4.In aqueous solutions, redox potential is a measure of the tendency of the solution to either gain or lose electrons in a reaction. A solution with a higher (more positive) reduction potential than some other molecule will have a tendency to gain electrons from this molecule (i.e. to be reduced by oxidizing this other … See moreE cell = oxidation potential + reduction potential. Since the tabulated standard electrode potentials are reduction potentials, the one which is most negative will need to be reversed in sign to get its oxidation potential. When that is done, it is clear that the theoretical standard cell potential for the zinc-copper cell is 1.10 volts.Add the potentials of the half-cells to get the overall standard cell potential. Eocell = Eoreduction + Eooxidation. Example: Find the standard cell potential for an electrochemical cell with the following cell reaction. Zn (s) + Cu2+(aq) Zn2+(aq) + Cu (s) Write the half-reactions for each process. It was attributed probably due to the nitric acid added to enhance the oxidizing potential of CAN. As the protonation of tertiary amine or pyridyl ligands by nitric acid would deteriorate their coordination with Cu II complexes and thus fails to regulate their redox potential as ATRP catalysts, which renders direct ATRP of (meth)acrylic acid …A positive voltage indicates that the solution is more likely to oxidize, or take electrons, from a species (compound, atom, or ion) with lower oxidative potential. For example, a +1000 …ORP stands for oxidation-reduction potential, which is a measure, in millivolts, of the tendency of a chemical substance to oxidize or reduce another chemical sub-stance. OXIDATION Oxidation is the loss of electrons by an atom, mole-cule, or ion. It may or may not be accompanied by the addition of oxygen, which is the origin of the term.Feb 3, 2016 · Things that have a negative oxidation potential are less reducing than hydrogen gas, and things that have a positive oxidation potential are more reducing than hydrogen gas. Lithium metal, for example, has an oxidation potential of more than three volts, i.e. $\gt+3\;\mathrm{V}$. It is an extremely powerful reducing agent, far more powerful ... Are you looking to take your career to the next level? Google’s Skillshop platform can help you unlock your professional potential and become a more successful and knowledgeable employee.E cell = oxidation potential + reduction potential. Since the tabulated standard electrode potentials are reduction potentials, the one which is most negative will need to be reversed in sign to get its oxidation potential. When that is done, it is clear that the theoretical standard cell potential for the zinc-copper cell is 1.10 volts.Mar 22, 2021 · The aerosol oxidative potential (OP) is considered to better represent the acute health hazards of aerosols than the mass concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The proposed major ... This review summarises literature data on redox potential (Eh) as an essential characteristic of surface waters affecting their ecological and chemical state.Hydroxyl radical is the most reactive oxidizing agent in water treatment, with an oxidation potential between 2.8 V (pH 0) and 1.95 V (pH 14) vs. SCE (saturated calomel electrode, the most commonly used reference electrode) [].OH· is very nonselective in its behavior and rapidly reacts with numerous species with the rate constants on the …Oxidation reduction potential, or ORP, is a measure of a substance’s ability to either oxidize or reduce another substance. It is measured by the electrodes of an ORP meter. A positive reading on an ORP meter means that the substance is an oxidizing agent; a negative reading indicates that the substance is a reducing agent. Oxidation and ...Factors versus arsenite oxidizing potential. The metal oxidizing potential of bacterium at various factors including initial arsenite concentration, pH, and temperature was worked out for a time period of 48 and 96 h of incubation. 3.7.1. Effect of temperature. The strain 1S1 showed maximum As +3 oxidation potential at 37 °C i.e. 65 and 96% As ...Reduction Potential - Reduction potential is defined as the potential of a cell consisting of the electrode in question acting as a cathode and the standard hydrogen electrogen acting as an anode. Reduction always takes place at the cathode and oxidation at the anode. Visit BYJUS to learn more about reduction potential.Oxidation-Reduction Potentials One way to quantify whether a substance is a strong oxidizing agent or a strong reducing agent is to use the oxidation-reduction potential or …An oxidizing agent (also known as an oxidant, oxidizer, electron recipient, or electron acceptor) is a substance in a redox chemical reaction that gains or "accepts"/"receives" an electron from a reducing agent (called the reductant, reducer, or electron donor ). In other words, an oxidizer is any substance that oxidizes another substance. Hydroxyl radical is the most reactive oxidizing agent in water treatment, with an oxidation potential between 2.8 V (pH 0) and 1.95 V (pH 14) vs. SCE (saturated calomel electrode, the most commonly used reference electrode) [].OH· is very nonselective in its behavior and rapidly reacts with numerous species with the rate constants on the …An oxidizing agent, or oxidant, gains electrons and is reduced in a chemical reaction. Also known as the electron acceptor, the oxidizing agent is …Hydrogen peroxide ( H2O2) is a nonplanar molecule with (twisted) C 2 symmetry; this was first shown by Paul-Antoine Giguère in 1950 using infrared spectroscopy. [9] [10] Although the O−O bond is a single bond, the molecule has a relatively high rotational barrier of 386 cm −1 (4.62 kJ / mol) for rotation between enantiomers via the trans ... An oxidizing agent, or oxidant, gains electrons and is reduced in a chemical reaction. Also known as the electron acceptor, the oxidizing agent is normally in one of its higher possible oxidation states because it will gain electrons and be reduced. Examples of oxidizing agents include halogens, potassium nitrate, and nitric acid.9 thg 3, 2018 ... What is a Redox Potential? Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP or REDOX Potential) measures an aqueous system's capacity to either release or ...Ozone is a powerful oxidant (far more so than dioxygen) and has many industrial and consumer applications related to oxidation. This same high oxidizing potential, however, causes ozone to damage mucous and respiratory tissues in animals, and also tissues in plants, above concentrations of about 100 ppb.Jun 30, 2023 · Oxidation is the loss of electrons. Each of the elements (for example, chlorine) could potentially take electrons from something else and are subsequently ionized (e.g., Cl-). This means that they are all potential oxidizing agents. Fluorine is such a powerful oxidizing agent that solution reactions are unfeasible. Corrosion Protection Methods. J. Yahalom, in Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2001 1.2 Lowering Oxidant Concentration. The oxidation potential of a …The redox potential is the reduction / oxidation potential, which is the tendency to gain or lose electrons by an element, as quantified by voltage. What are ...May 21, 2021 · Tables like this make it possible to determine the standard cell potential for many oxidation-reduction reactions. The higher the standard reduction potential, the higher the tendency of that electrode to be reduced. All electrodes with a positive standard reduction potential value have a higher tendency than hydrogen to be reduced, while all ... In electrochemical series, the electrodes (metals and non-metals) in contact with their ions are arranged on the basis of the values of their standard reduction or oxidation potentials. Standard electrode potential is obtained by measuring the voltage when the half cell is connected to the standard hydrogen electrode under standard conditions.The reduction potential is a measure of the tendency of the oxidizing agent to be reduced. Its value is zero for H + + e − → 1 ⁄ 2 H 2 by definition, positive for oxidizing agents stronger than H + (e.g., +2.866 V for F 2 ) and negative for oxidizing agents that are weaker than H + (e.g., −0.763 V for Zn 2+ ).Enrichment of S-oxidizing bacteria. The intricacy of the fundamental environmental composition and the existence of indigenous populations of microorganisms might affect sulfide removal efficacy (Dou et al., 2022). Consequently, it is critical to enrich S/sulfite-oxidizing bacteria with an appropriate microbial density under realistic settings.The significant decrease in the oxidation of these materials in the first decade compared to earlier materials has corroborated that postirradiation melting decreased the oxidation potential of UHMWPE. However, the oxidation that is observed sporadically in these materials in the midterm (5–10 years in vivo) was unexpected. Mar 11, 2015 · Ozone has one of the highest oxidation potentials, lower only than flruorine atom, oxygen atom, and hydroxyl radical. Some of the reactions of ozone create the oxygen atom and hydroxyl radical to create an even higher oxidation potential than ozone alone. Because of the high oxidation potetnail the oxygen molecule has a high capacity to react ... If the potential for the oxidation of Ga to Ga 3 + is 0.55 V under standard conditions, what is the potential for the oxidation of Ni to Ni 2 +? Given: galvanic cell, half-reactions, standard cell potential, and potential for the oxidation half-reaction under standard conditions. Asked for: standard electrode potential of reaction occurring at ...Oxidation/Reduction (Redox) The redox state of groundwater—whether the groundwater is oxic (oxidized) or anoxic (reduced)—has profound implications for groundwater quality. Knowing the redox conditions of groundwater can help determine whether it contains elevated levels of many contaminants, including arsenic, nitrate, and …Jun 30, 2023 · Oxidation is the loss of electrons. Each of the elements (for example, chlorine) could potentially take electrons from something else and are subsequently ionized (e.g., Cl-). This means that they are all potential oxidizing agents. Fluorine is such a powerful oxidizing agent that solution reactions are unfeasible. Introduction. Of all the oxidizing agents discussed in organic chemistry textbooks, potassium permanganate, KMnO 4, is probably the most common, and also the most applicable. As will be shown below, KMnO 4 can be utilized to oxidize a wide range of organic molecules. The products that are obtained can vary depending on the conditions, but ...Oxidation–reduction potential ( Eh) is a measure of the ability of chemical/biochemical systems to oxidize (lose electrons) or reduce (gain electrons). A positive value indicates an oxidized state, whereas a negative value indicates a reduced state. The Eh of milk is about +150 mV and that of cheese is about -250 mV. Oxidation Examples. A classic example of oxidation occurs between iron and oxygen in moist air, forming iron oxide or rust. The iron is said to have oxidized into rust. The chemical reaction is: 4 Fe + 3 O 2 + 6 H 2 O → 4 Fe (OH) 3 or 2Fe 2 O 3 ·6H 2 O. The iron metal is oxidized to form the iron oxide known as rust. Fe → Fe 2+ + 2 e−.If the potential for the oxidation of Ga to Ga 3 + is 0.55 V under standard conditions, what is the potential for the oxidation of Ni to Ni 2 +? Given: galvanic cell, half-reactions, standard cell potential, and potential for the oxidation half-reaction under standard conditions. Asked for: standard electrode potential of reaction occurring at ...Introduction. Of all the oxidizing agents discussed in organic chemistry textbooks, potassium permanganate, KMnO 4, is probably the most common, and also the most applicable. As will be shown below, KMnO 4 can be utilized to oxidize a wide range of organic molecules. The products that are obtained can vary depending on the conditions, but ...Complete each of the following half-reactions with the correct number of electrons and then arrange them from strongest oxidizing potential to strongest reducing potential. Strongest oxidizing Potential Drag the text blocks below into their correct order. Fea (aa) Fee (aq) Eo -+0.77 v Cua (aq) Cu (aq Eo +0.15 V 6e F (g) 2F (aq) Eo +2.87 V H.(g ... To get the potential of the reverse reaction, known as an “oxidation potential”, simply reverse the sign of the potential. For example, standard oxidation potential for the half reaction of fluoride ions to elemental fluorine has a potential of -2.87 volts (which means it is very difficult to make this reaction occur). Ozone is a potent oxidant (much more potent than dioxygen) with numerous industrial and consumer applications involving oxidation. Above concentrations of roughly 0.1 ppm, ozone’s high oxidizing potential leads it to harm mucous and respiratory tissues in animals, as well as tissues in plants.Here the potential is controlled by a redox buffer of Ce 3+ and Ce 4+. The redox buffer is at its lower limit of E = EoCe4+/Ce3+ – 0.05916 when the titrant reaches 110% of the equivalence point volume and the potential is EoCe4+/Ce3+ when the volume of Ce 4+ is 2× Veq. Figure 9.37c shows the third step in our sketch.The primary oxidizing agents in water are hypochlorous acid and the hypochlorite ion, although hypochlorite has a lower oxidizing potential. Oxidizing potential is a measure of the tendency of chlorine to react with other materials. The speed at which these reactions occur is determined by pH, temperature, and oxidation/reduction potential.Oxidation–reduction reactions, commonly known as redox reactions, are reactions that involve the transfer of electrons from one species to another. The species that loses electrons is said to be oxidized, while the …The aerosol oxidative potential (OP) is considered to better represent the acute health hazards of aerosols than the mass concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The proposed major ...P680+ is said to be the strongest biological oxidizing agent. Given its function, why is this necessary? A. it obtains electrons from the oxygen atom in a water molecule, so it must have a stronger attraction for electrons than oxygen has B. it is the molecule that transfers electrons to plastoquinone (Pq) of the electron transfer system C. it transfers its electrons to reduce NADP+ to NADPH D ...Things that have a negative oxidation potential are less reducing than hydrogen gas, and things that have a positive oxidation potential are more reducing than hydrogen gas. Lithium metal, for example, has an oxidation potential of more than three volts, i.e. $\gt+3\;\mathrm{V}$. It is an extremely powerful reducing agent, far more powerful ...Fluorine has the highest reduction potential (E = +2.87 V) and the strongest oxidizing power among the halogen molecules. It is also the most reactive nonmetallic element. Since water is oxidized by F 2 at much lower …oxidation potential of 1.44V S 2 O 8-2 + H 2 O HSO 5-+ HSO 4-As a result, persulfate solutions may contain several different oxidant and radical species. One consequence of this mixture of oxidizing species is that multiple pathways for contaminant oxidation may exist, increasing the probability of reducing the target compound concentrations.Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) or redox is a measurement that indicates how oxidizing or reducing a liquid is. For example, water may be moderately oxidizing (such as aerated water), strongly oxidizing (such as chlorinated water or hydrogen peroxide solution), or reducing (such as an environment where anaerobic microbes are active).Jun 14, 2018 · Redox potential is defined as the specific indicator of the extent to which the oxidizing as well as reducing powers of a substance which has both reducing and oxidizing ingredients, have achieved equilibrium. Redox potential is used as: An indicator of electrochemical reactivity of substances in environmental conditions. Nov 11, 2022 · The first oxidation step of benzyl alcohol is computed to occur at a potential between 1.65 and 1.83 V versus Ag/AgCl (Supporting Information), in agreement with experimental cyclic voltametric data that show that the peak current for direct benzyl alcohol oxidation is at ∼1.5 V (Figure Figure1 1 A, red trace). Instructions. Enter an equation of a redox chemical reaction and press the Balance button. The balanced equation will be calculated along with the oxidation states of each element and the oxidizing and reduction agents. Use uppercase for the first character in the element and lowercase for the second character.E cell = oxidation potential + reduction potential. Since the tabulated standard electrode potentials are reduction potentials, the one which is most negative will need to be reversed in sign to get its oxidation potential. When that is done, it is clear that the theoretical standard cell potential for the zinc-copper cell is 1.10 volts.Are you looking to take your career to the next level? Google’s Skillshop platform can help you unlock your professional potential and become a more successful and knowledgeable employee.N 2 O is a trace greenhouse gas with 265 times the warming potential of CO 2 (on a 100-year scale) in the atmosphere and acts to deplete stratospheric ozone 1.The global concentration of N 2 O in ...Alcohol oxidation is an important class of reaction that is traditionally performed under harsh conditions and most often requires the use of organometallic compounds or transition metal complexes as catalysts. Here, we introduce a new electrochemical synthetic method, referred to as reductive oxidation, in which alcohol oxidation is initiated by the redox-mediated electrocatalytic reduction ...Nov 8, 2022 · Alcohol oxidation is an important class of reaction that is traditionally performed under harsh conditions and most often requires the use of organometallic compounds or transition metal complexes as catalysts. Here, we introduce a new electrochemical synthetic method, referred to as reductive oxidation, in which alcohol oxidation is initiated by the redox-mediated electrocatalytic reduction ... Fluorine has the highest reduction potential (E = +2.87 V) and the strongest oxidizing power among the halogen molecules. It is also the most reactive nonmetallic element. Since water is oxidized by F 2 at much lower …Jan 23, 2023 · General Reactivity with Organic Molecules. KMnO 4 is able to oxidize carbon atoms if they contain sufficiently weak bonds, including. Carbon atoms with π π bonds, as in alkenes and alkynes. Carbon atoms with weak C-H bonds, such as. C-H bonds in the alpha-positions of substituted aromatic rings. C-H bonds in carbon atoms containing C-O bonds ... Determine standard cell potentials for oxidation-reduction reactions Use standard reduction potentials to determine the better oxidizing or reducing agent from among several possible choices The cell potential in Figure 16.4 (+0.46 V) results from the difference in the electrical potentials for each electrode. The molecules under the dashed line fit the criterion that the GSOP is higher than the highest oxidation potential of the water oxidation catalyst, 5.65 V vs. vacuum (ESI,† S6). Out of the 118 dyes that fulfill the GSOP criterion 90 dyes are NDI derivatives, 21 PTI1 derivatives, 6 PTI2 derivatives and the final one is the PDI root structure.This leads to a significant decrease in the overall cell potential for the reaction because the Ag(NH 3) 2 + ion is a much weaker oxidizing agent than the Ag + ion. The fact that this reaction is run in an aqueous ammonia solution also has an effect on the potential for the oxidation of glucose, because this half-reaction contains a pair of H + ions.The Fe 4 + ion is a more potent oxidizing agent (standard reduction potential of approximately 1 V, sufficient for oxidation of Tyr 385. Another possibility is that the peroxide activator (in the formation of the ferryl-oxo ligand) is NO (nitric oxide, a free radical). NO is formed by immune cells (like macrophages) on immune activation. ...Redox Titration Curves. To evaluate a redox titration we need to know the shape of its titration curve. In an acid–base titration or a complexation titration, the titration curve shows how the concentration of H 3 O + (as pH) or M n+ (as pM) changes as we add titrant. For a redox titration it is convenient to monitor the titration reaction’s potential …Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine. In each case, a halogen higher in the group can oxidize the ions of one lower down. For example, chlorine can oxidize bromide ions to bromine: Cl2 + 2Br− → 2Cl− +Br2 Cl 2 + 2 Br − → 2 Cl − + Br 2. The bromine forms an orange solution. As shown below, chlorine can also oxidize iodide ions to iodine:Standard Oxidation Potentials. The standard oxidation potential is much like the standard reduction potential. It is the tendency for a species to be oxidized at standard conditions. It is also written in the form of a half reaction, and an example is shown below.The more positive the cell potential, the greater the tendency of this reaction to occur and the stronger the oxidizing agent M 2 +. Through the relation E° = – Δ G° /nF it is apparent that a standard half-cell reduction potential is simply the decrease in the free energy per mole of electrons transferred to H + ions under the conditions that define the SHE.Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD +) is a co-enzyme that plays a key role in the process of glycolysis ( Demarest et al., 2019 ). Normally, NADH is shuttled into the mitochondria to produce NAD + needed for glycolysis, but with increased rates of glycolysis in cancer cells, mitochondrial production is not sufficient.The strongest oxidant in the table is F 2, with a standard electrode potential of 2.87 V. This high value is consistent with the high electronegativity of fluorine and tells us that fluorine has a stronger tendency to accept electrons (it is a stronger oxidant) than any other element. Table 2.3.1. 2.3. 1. This article covers everything you need to know about ozone oxidizing potential. What is Oxidation? Oxidation is commonly referred to as burning or rusting by non-chemists and …oxidation potential. views 2,854,977 updated. oxidation potential (electrode potential, reduction potential; Eθ) The energy change, measured in volts, required to add or remove electrons to or from an element or compound. The reference reaction is the removal of electrons from hydrogen in a standard hydrogen half-cell (i.e. H 2 (gas) at 1 atm ...Alcohol oxidation is an important class of reaction that is traditionally performed under harsh conditions and most often requires the use of organometallic compounds or transition metal complexes as catalysts. Here, we introduce a new electrochemical synthetic method, referred to as reductive oxidation, in which alcohol oxidation is initiated by the redox-mediated electrocatalytic reduction ...Dec 24, 2019 · Element (F 2) at the topmost position of electrochemical series which has the highest reduction potential is the strongest oxidizing agent. Oxidizing power decreases from top to bottom in the series. e.g. The elements like Cu, Ag, Hg, Br 2, Cl 2, etc. are good oxidizing agents. F 2 is the strongest oxidizing agent. For Choosing Elements as ... Electrochemical Series. The electrochemical series is a sequence of half cells grouped in ascending electrode potential order. On the left are oxidants, and on the right are their conjugate reductants. The voltage produced when a half cell is linked to the hydrogen half-cell, indicated in red in the electrochemical series on the right, under ...Alcohol oxidation is an important class of reaction that is traditionally performed under harsh conditions and most often requires the use of organometallic compounds or transition metal complexes as catalysts. Here, we introduce a new electrochemical synthetic method, referred to as reductive oxidation, in which alcohol oxidation is initiated by the redox-mediated electrocatalytic reduction ...oxidation potential of 1.44V S 2 O 8-2 + H 2 O HSO 5-+ HSO 4-As a result, persulfate solutions may contain several different oxidant and radical species. One consequence of this mixture of oxidizing species is that multiple pathways for contaminant oxidation may exist, increasing the probability of reducing the target compound concentrations.Aug 29, 2023 · The standard cell potential ( Eo cell E c e l l o) is the difference of the two electrodes, which forms the voltage of that cell. To find the difference of the two half cells, the following equation is used: Eo Cell = Eo Red,Cathode −Eo Red,Anode (1a) (1a) E C e l l o = E R e d, C a t h o d e o − E R e d, A n o d e o. with. Oxidation-reduction potential defines the extent to which a material will lose or gain electrons, thus causing them to be oxidized or reduced. For example, the more …Sep 25, 2020 · Oxidation of ammonia by molecular complexes is a burgeoning area of research, with critical scientific challenges that must be addressed. A fundamental understanding of individual reaction steps is needed, particularly for cleavage of N–H bonds and formation of N–N bonds. This Perspective evaluates the challenges of designing molecular catalysts for oxidation of ammonia and highlights ... Cabelli and Bielski 24 conclude that it is not possible to deconvolute k 6 and k 8, but the sum (0.356 k 6 + k 8) can be said to be equal to 1.22 × 10 7 M −1 s −1.. The standard reduction potential can be determined by subtractinOxidation–reduction potential ( Eh) is a m Redox potential is defined as the specific indicator of the extent to which the oxidizing as well as reducing powers of a substance which has both reducing and oxidizing ingredients, have achieved equilibrium. Redox potential is used as: An indicator of electrochemical reactivity of substances in environmental conditions.Fluorine is an element that has high electronegativity. Fluorine has low bond enthalpy and highest reduction potential so more ability to loose the electrons. Fluorine can also be easily reduced. Fluorine is thus one of the best oxidizing agents. Henceforth Correct option is the highest reduction potential (B) Introduction. Of all the oxidizing agents discussed in org It is possible to remove a fifth electron to form another the \(\ce{VO_2^{+}}\) ion with the vanadium in a +5 oxidation state. ... Ions containing cerium in the +4 oxidation state are oxidizing agents, capable of oxidizing molybdenum from the +2 to the +6 oxidation state (from Mo 2 + to MoO 4 2-).The inhibition of these ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms is thought to be a consequence of their adaptation to substrate-limited environments, or, alternatively, to be caused by a sensitivity to ... PAA is strong oxidizing agent with a high s...

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